The Task at Hand

Waste to energy

In an RDF plant, various mixed or pre-sorted waste streams are shredded, screened and separated to generate refuse-derived fuels for all kinds of applications. Cement works and heating plants are the major users.

The typical process starts with shredding using a Terminator, followed by screening of the fines (if there is a substantial organic component), separation of the 2-dimensional (high caloric) and 3-dimensional (material reclamation) fractions with a Ballistor, and final post-shredding of the high-caloric fraction for use as fuel. The use of a Ballistor can increase the amount of material reclaimed for recycling.

The process is designed and dimensioned to customer requirements. The composition of the input material and the potential sales outlets of the final products are key factors. The process is scalable from low to very high throughput. 

  • Process Steps


    The process starts with a Terminator single-shaft shredder, whose shredding performance is configured for the input material. The contrary resistance of the shredder lets it accept a wide range of input materials, while the even intake ensures a consistent supply of shredded material to the downstream process steps. 

  • Process Steps

    Extraction of fines

    If there is substantial organic content in the input material, it will need to be removed before further processing. The machine used for this is either a stationary Komptech drum screen or Flowerdisc disc screen. 

  • Process Steps

    Preparation of RDF fraction

    The Ballistor’s separation function enables splitting of the material stream into three fractions - flat (2D), cubic (3D) and fine. The 2D fraction consists largely of high-caloric, contrary-free materials that can be further processed into fuel. The 3D fraction contains readily separable recyclables (metals etc.) that can be reclaimed for recycling.

  • Process Steps


    The 2D fraction is post-shredded to the grain size specified by the customer. Since the contraries have already been removed at this point, this step is done directly with the 2D fraction.

  • Process Steps

    RDF quality

    Additional processing steps can be applied to achieve the desired quality in terms of chloride, metal or ash content for various applications (cement works: rotary kiln or calcinator, fluidized bed furnace). The granular size of the fuel will depend on the customer requirements. The plant design can also be adjusted to influence the caloric value of the RDF.

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